Chapter 1. What's Stalking?|
Internet. 'Victim Services'. http://www.ccon.com/stalkvictim/resources.html
What is Stalking?
Stalking is a serious crime that involves the intentional, malicious, repeated following and harassment of a person, causing the person to fear for his or her safety. Stalkers try - often successfully - to exercise power and control over another person. Stalkers have an emotional obsession with the victim and resort to stalking as a way of maintaining contact. Most stalking cases involve people with a prior acquaintance.
A New York City study found that 58% of stalkers had a prior acquaintance with their victim; an additional 13% were prior intimates; 13% were celebrity stalking cases; 8% were strangers; and the relationship was unknown in 8% of the cases studied.
What do Stalkers Do?
Stalkers try - and succeed - to instill fear. Some follow their victims in public, including to and from home or work. Others attempt to communicate with their victims via phone, FAX, or e-mail, or by sending unwanted letters or gifts. Some stalkers show up at the victim's home or place of employment, break into his or her residence or vehicle, or vandalize his or her property. Some do all of the above. In extreme cases, The legal definition of stalking is defined primarily by state statutes. While statutes vary, most define stalking as a course of conduct that places a person in fear for their safety.
However, the term "stalking" is more commonly used to describe specific kinds of behavior directed at a particular person, such as harassing or threatening another person. But the variety of specific strategies employed and behaviors displayed by stalkers are limited only by the creativity and ingenuity of the stalkers themselves. Suffice it to say, virtually any unwanted contact between a stalker and their victim which directly or indirectly communicates a threat or places the victim in fear can generally be referred to as stalking.
Is Stalking a New Phenomenon?
No - the history of stalking behavior is as old as the history of human relationships. Stalking has always been with us - what is new is that, until recently, it was never labeled as a separate and distinct class of deviant behavior. Prior to its common usage and its subsequent designation as a crime, stalking was referred to as harassment, annoyance or, in some cases, simply as domestic violence. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, numerous high-profile cases involving celebrities began to catch the attention of the media and public policy leaders. Only then did such behavior begin to be described as "stalking." Since then, stalking has become a common subject in the popular media. With the advent of blockbuster films such as Fatal Attraction, Cape Fear, Sleeping with the Enemy, and its coverage by the news media, "stalking" has become a household word.
How Common is Stalking?
Unlike most violent crimes, law enforcement officials do not track the incidences of stalking offenses as part of their normal crime reporting process. Since there has been virtually no empirical data available, no one knows just how common stalking cases are in the United States.
Best estimates indicate that as many as 200,000 Americans are currently being stalked; moreover, 1 in 20 women will become targets of stalking behavior at least once during their lifetimes.
With the passage of the 1994 Crime Bill by the U.S. Congress, which mandated the tracking and compilation of stalking crime statistics, experts will be able to determine the prevalence of this crime for the first time.
Who Are Stalkers?
Stalking is a gender neutral crime, with both male and female perpetrators and victims. However, most stalkers are men. Best statistics indicate that 75 - 80 percent (75 - 80%) of all stalking cases involve men stalking women. Most tend to fall into the young to middle-aged categories. Most have above-average intelligence. Stalkers come from every walk of life and socio-economic background. Virtually anyone can be a stalker, just as anyone can be a stalking victim.
Psychological and Behavioral Profile of Stalkers:
Unfortunately, there is no single psychological or behavioral profile for stalkers. In fact, many experts believe that every stalker is different, making it very difficult not only to categorize their behavior, but doubly difficult to devise effective strategies to cope with such behavior.
Forensic psychologists (those who study criminal behavior) are just beginning to examine the minds and motives of stalkers. These psychologists have identified two broad categories of stalkers and stalking behavior - "Love Obsession" and "Simple Obsession."
Love Obsession Stalkers.
This category is characterized by stalkers who develop a love obsession or fixation on another person with whom they have no personal relationship. The target may be only a casual acquaintance or even a complete stranger. This category represents about 20 - 25 percent (20 - 25%) of all stalking cases.
Stalkers who stalk celebrities and stars such as David Letterman, Jodie Foster, and Madonna, fall into the category of love obsessionists; however, stalkers in this category also include those who develop fixations on regular, ordinary people, including co-workers, their aerobics instructor, casual acquaintances or people they pass in the street.
The vast majority of love obsessional stalkers suffer from a mental disorder - often schizophrenia or paranoia. Regardless of the specific disorder, nearly all display some delusional thought patterns and behaviors. Since most are unable to develop normal personal relationships through more conventional and socially acceptable means, they retreat to a life of fantasy relationships with persons they hardly know, if at all. They invent fictional stories - complete with what is to them real-life scripts which cast their unwilling victims in the lead role as their own love interest. They then attempt to act out their fictional plots in the real world.
The woman who has stalked David Letterman for five years truly believes she is his wife. She has been discovered on Mr. Letterman's property numerous times, has been arrested driving his car and has even appeared at his residence with her own child in tow - each time insisting that she is David Letterman's wife.
Love obsessional stalkers not only attempt to live out their fantasies, but expect their victims to play their assigned roles as well. They believe they can make the object of their affection love them. They desperately want to establish a positive personal relationship with their victim. When the victim refuses to follow the script or doesn't respond as the stalker hopes, they may attempt to force the victim to comply by use of threats and intimidation.
When threats and intimidation fail, some stalkers turn to violence. Some decide that if they cannot be a positive part of their victim's life, they will be part of their life in a negative way. Some even go so far as to murder their victims in a twisted attempt to romantically link themselves to their victim forever. This was the case with the man who shot and killed Rebecca Schaffer, the young actress and star of the television show My Sister Sam.
Simple Obsession Stalkers.
This second category represents 70 - 80 percent (70-80%) of stalking cases and is distinguished by the fact that some previous personal or romantic relationship existed between the stalker and the victim before the stalking behavior began.
Virtually all domestic violence cases involving stalking fall under this rubric, as do casual dating relationships (commonly referred to as Fatal Attraction cases, named after the popular movie by the same title).
While this kind of stalker may or may not have psychological disorders, all clearly have personality disorders. One forensic psychologist has attempted to identify some of the common personality traits and behavioral characteristics among this category of stalkers. Stalkers in this class are characterized as individuals who are:
Since the victim literally becomes the stalker's primary source of self-esteem, their greatest fear becomes the loss of this person. Their self-worth is so closely tied to the victim that when they are deprived of that person, they may feel that their life is without worth.
It is exactly this dynamic that makes simple obsession stalkers so dangerous. In the most acute cases, such stalkers will literally stop at nothing to regain their "lost possession" - their partner - and in so doing, regain their lost self-esteem.
Just as with most domestic violence cases, stalkers are the most dangerous when they are first deprived of their source of power and self-esteem; in other words, the time when their victims determine to physically remove themselves from the offender's presence on a permanent basis by leaving the relationship.
Indeed, stalking cases which emerge from domestic violence situations constitute the most common and potentially lethal class of stalking cases. Domestic violence victims who leave an abusive relationship run a 75 percent (75%) higher risk of being murdered by their partners.
Stalking behavior is as diverse as the stalkers themselves. Yet behavioral experts are beginning to identify patterns in the cycle of violence displayed by simple obsession stalkers.
Stalking Behavior Patterns and Cycles:
Stalking behavior patterns closely mirror those common in many domestic violence cases. The pattern is usually triggered when the stalker's advances toward their victim is frustrated - regardless of whether the stalker is seeking to establish a personal relationship or continue a previously established relationship contrary to the wishes of the victim.
The stalker may attempt to woo their victim into a relationship by sending flowers, candy and love letters, in an attempt to "prove their love." However, when the victim spurns their unwelcome advances, the stalker often turns to intimidation. Such attempts at intimidation often begin in the form of an unjustified, jealous and inappropriate intrusion into the victim's life. Often these contacts become more numerous and intrusive over time, until such collective conduct becomes a persistent pattern of harassment. Many times, harassing behavior escalates to threatening behavior. Such threats may be direct or indirect and communicated explicitly or implicitly by the stalker's conduct. Unfortunately, cases that reach this level of seriousness too often end in violence and/or murder.
Stalkers, unable to establish or re-establish a relationship of power and control over their victims, turn to violence as a means of reasserting their domination over the victim. In some cases, offenders are even willing to kill their victims and themselves in a last, desperate attempt to assert their domination over the victim.
The evolution of the stalker's thought pattern progresses from: "If I can just prove to you how much I love you," to "I can make you love me," to "If I can't have you, nobody else will."
While this progression in behavior is common, no stalking case is completely predictable. Some stalkers may never escalate past the first stage. Others jump from the first stage to the last stage with little warning. Still others regress to previous stages before advancing to the next. It is not uncommon to see stalkers intersperse episodes of threats and violence with flowers and love letters.
As difficult as it is to predict what a stalker might do, it is at least as difficult to predict when he might do it. A few stalkers will progress to later stages in only a few weeks or even days. In other cases, stalkers who have engaged in some of the most serious stalking behaviors may go months or even years without attempting a subsequent contact.
It is this unpredictability that makes developing an effective response strategy so difficult in any particular stalking case.